Extremely Large Telescope
In 2006, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) started the ELT program with detailed studies for the telescope. Conceived as a ‘window into distant galaxies’, the gigantic telescope depends on a series of five mirrors producing exceptionally accurate high-resolution images from millions of light-years out in space. The ESO looked to SCHOTT’s unrivalled expertise in glass-ceramics, and in 2017 commissioned the company to begin manufacturing of the mirror substrates required to achieve its unprecedented telescopic range.
TaskThe ELT project is one of the largest SCHOTT ZERODUR® has ever been involved with, producing the substrate for a total of four glass-ceramic mirrors. Two have a diameter of approx. 4 m, with the secondary mirror (M2) as the largest convex monolithic glass components. The production of the secondary mirror, with a diameter of 4.25 m, is a huge challenge, requiring the grinding of raw material down to just 10 cm or 3.94 inches in thickness. For the primary mirror, SCHOTT has the task of manufacturing 949 mirror segment blanks 1.5 m in diameter at the rate of one per day, each with exactly the same dimensions and properties.
SolutionSCHOTT is ideally prepared for this project with its state-of-the-art equipment: A five-axis CNC competence center enables the manufacturing of ZERODUR® glass-ceramic mirrors up to a size of 4.25 meters in diameter with a precision never achieved before . A second melting tank, installed for ZERODUR®, intends to meet the long-term high demand for the material and to contribute to customers’ success.
A gigantic 39-meter primary mirror
The main mirror will have 798 hexagonal ZERODUR® segments in total – SCHOTT produces 949 segment blanks, each 1.5 m in diameter and 50 mm in thickness. They will work together as a single mirror able to collect tens of millions times more light than the human eye.
A technological masterpiece
The four-meter class secondary mirror (M2) for the ELT is the largest convex mirror ever built. It exhibits an extreme curvature, a diameter of 4.25 meters with a thickness of only 100 mm.
After casting, the tertiary mirror substrate (M3) was ground down to its final weight of 3.2 tons by performing several machining steps. The final mirror measures four meters in diameter, is 100 mm in thickness, and is located in the telescope optics below the huge primary mirror.
Visualizing the vastness of the universeThe power and scale of the Extremely Large Telescope is simply astonishing. With almost crucial elements of the project being done for the first time, it aims to gather 100 million times more light than the human eye, with images 16 times sharper than those achieved by the Hubble telescope. It will also enable more detailed studies of planets surrounding other stars, along with distant galaxies and supermassive black holes, expanding our knowledge and understanding of the universe.
An unprecedented challenge that demands true teamwork
The planning and building of the ELT is a massive undertaking and one that requires close cooperation between hundreds of technical experts based all over the world. Simply travelling to the ELT site in the middle of Chile’s Atacama Desert is a logistical challenge, so processing and transporting the massive mirrors and components has pushed SCHOTT and its partners to new levels of dedication and innovation.
Glass made by
CESA (Spain) VDL (Netherlands)
Support cells for M2 and M3 mirrors
SENER group (Spain)
AdOptica, INAF (Italy)
ACe consortium (Italy)
ELT project owner
ESO, the European Southern Observatory